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Conversation Structure

Understand how Flex WFO splits voice conversations into segments and how WHO calculates handling time. Conversations are a backbone of WFO Analytics Data Model.


A Segment is an atom of any conversation. A segment represents an interval in time dedicated to certain phases during a Conversation.

Segments can be of different Kinds:

  • Queue Segment (Kind=Queue)
    • This segment captures the moment when a customer moved from an IVR to the queue. Queue time is captured during this segment.
  • Conversation Segment (Kind=Conversation)
    • This segment defines the time from when a customer is connected to an agent until the issue is resolved or transferred elsewhere.

A Conversation represents communication between one customer and any agents they may interact within the contact center.

A conversation where one customer speaks to one agent will be composed of two segments:

Conversation Structure.png

In a call with one cold transfer, the conversation will have four segments (2 of Queue & 2 of Conversation kind segments):

Conversation Structure Transfer.png

Conversations can be further organized into Cases, Projects, Campaigns and Initiatives that provide higher-level groupings of Conversations. For more details, check out the WFO Analytics Data Model.

Handling and Experience Time

Handling Time is the time an agent spends handling a customer, including preparation and work that happens after a call.

  • Handling Time - The time agents spend handling a customer.
  • Experience Time - The time a customer spends trying to resolve their requests while talking to your agents and going through your infrastructure.

Depending on the data source providing conversations, all handling and experience time information may not be available.

Outbound calls

Your agents will make outbound calls when they do cold calling, warm calling, or reach out to your existing customers.


Handling Time of an Outbound Conversation is the sum of Ring Time, Talk Time and Wrap Up Time.

We include Ring Time in the total handling time, as your agent is blocked from other activities when trying to reach customers.

If a dialer places the call, the time the dialer spends ringing is not included in Ring Time and therefore not included in Handling Time.

Inbound Calls

When a customer calls your contact center, they can go through a sequence of steps depending on your infrastructure.

Usually, the following activities occur. A phone rings, and, depending on the phone number's configuration, the customer can go to an IVR. if the customer was not able to solve their problem, they queue up to wait for an available agent. This all happens before the customer can talk to an agent.


Handling Time for inbound conversations does not include Ring Time as the agent is not blocked at the moment. Handling Time starts from the time when a customer connects to an agent.

IVR Only

IVR Only conversations are conversations where customers managed to solve their request using only IVR, or they were not successful and just gave up.

IVR only.png

Handling Time for IVR-Only conversations is always zero.

Time spent in an IVR is not captured in WFO by default. In order to surface IVR related metrics, you'll need to pass this through TaskRouter events.

Cold (blind) transfers

If an agent cannot handle a customer request for some reason, they can forward them to another queue.

For example, a Level 1 support agent can transfer customers with very technical questions to Level 2 support queue.

Transfer with Handle.png

The conversation of a transferred call has 4 Segments.

Handling Time represents how much time your agents spend handling the customer: the Handling Time of this conversation is the sum of the Handling Times of two conversation segments (where Kind=Conversation), even when the Handling Times overlap because they are handled by two agents.

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