Ready to implement user account verification in your application? Here's how it works at a high level:
- The user begins the registration process by entering their data, including a phone number, into a signup form.
- The authentication system sends a one-time password to the user's mobile phone to verify their possession of that phone number.
- The user enters the one-time password into a form before completing registeration.
- The user sees a success page and receives an SMS indicating that their account has been created.
To get this done, you'll be working with the following Twilio-powered APIs:
Authy REST API
- Users Resource: You will need to create Authy users to send and verify one-time passwords with them.
- SMS Resource: We will ask Authy to send one-time passwords to our user via SMS.
- Verify Resource: Used to verify tokens entered by the user in our web form during registration.
Twilio REST API
- Messages Resource: We will use Twilio directly to send our user a confirmation message after they create an account.
Let's get started!
In this tutorial, we will be working through a series of user stories that describe how to fully implement account verification in a web application. Our team implemented this example application in about 12 story points (roughly equivalent to 12 working hours).
Let's get started with our first user story around creating a new user account.
As a user, I want to register for a new user account with my e-mail, full name, mobile phone number, and a password.
To do account verification, you need to start with an account. This requires that we create a bit of UI and a model object to create and save a new
User in our system. At a high level, here's what we will need to add:
- A form to enter details about the new user
- A route and controller function on the server to render the form
- A route and controller function on the server to handle the form POST request
- A persistent
Usermodel object to store information about the user
Let's start by looking at the model, where we decide what information we want to store about our user.
The User Model for this use-case is pretty straight-forward and Rails offers us some tools to make it even simpler. If you have already read through the 2FA tutorial this probably looks very similar. Let's start by defining our model and validating it.
First we need to create the ActiveRecord object, which creates the model in the related Postgres table and tells our app how to validate the model's data.
Validations are important since we want to make sure only accurate data is being saved into our datbase. In this case we only want to validate that all of our required fields are present. We can do this by creating a
validates statement with
In Rails creating a secure password hash is as simple as calling
has_secure_password. This created a hash that protects our user's passwords on the database.
One note: in order to run this demo you would need to run
rake db:migrate which would run the migrations in our db/migrate folder. For this tutorial we're going to focus on the verification steps, but if you want to learn more about migrations you can read the Rails guide on the subject.
Now we're ready to move up to the controller level of the application, starting with the HTTP request routes we'll need.
In a Rails application, there is something called Resource Routing which automatically maps a resource's CRUD capabilities to its controller. Since our User is an ActiveRecord resource, we can tell Rails that we want to use some of these routes, which will save us some lines of code.
This means that in this one line of code we automatically have a 'user/new' route which will render our 'user/new.html.erb' file.
Let's take a look at the new user form up close.
When we create a new user, we ask for a name, e-mail address, and a password. In order to validate their account with Authy, we also ask them for a mobile number with a country code, which we can use to send them one-time passwords via SMS.
By using the rails
form_for tag we can bind the form to the model object. This will generate the necessary html markup that will create a new User on submit.
Let's jump back over to the controller to see what happens when we create a user.
One of the other handy controllers created by our
User resource route is 'user/create' which handles the POST from our form.
In our controller we take the input from our form and create a new
User model. If the user is saved to the database successfully, we use the Authy gem to create a corresponding Authy User and save the ID for that user in our database.
Now we have a user that has registered, but is not yet verified. In order to view anything else on the site they need to verify that they own the phone number they submitted by entering a token we send to that phone. Time to take a look at how we would send this token.
As an authentication system, I want to send a one-time password to a user's mobile phone to verify their possession of that phone number.
This story covers a process that is invisible to the end user but necessary to power our account verification functionality. After a new user is created, the application needs to send a one-time password to that user's phone to validate the number (and the account). Here's what needs to get done:
- Create and configure an Authy API client.
- Modify the controller to send a one-time password after the user is created.
Let's begin by modifying the app's configuration to contain our Authy API key.
secrets.yml, we list configuration parameters for the application. Most are pulled in from system environment variables, which is a helpful way to access sensitive values (like API keys). This prevents us from accidentally checking them in to source control.
Now, we need our Authy production key (sign up for Authy here). When you create an Authy application, the production key is found on the dashboard:
Next, we need to jump over to the
UserController to configure the Authy client and create an instance method to send a one-time password.
Once the user has an
authyId, we can actually send a verification code to that user's mobile phone.
When our user is created successfully via the form we implemented for the last story, we send a token to the user's mobile phone to verify their account in our controller.
When the code is sent, we redirect to another page where the user can enter the token they were sent, completing the verification process.
As a user, I want to enter the one-time password sent to my mobile phone from the authentication system before I complete the signup process.
This story covers the next user-facing step of the verification process, where they enter the code we sent them to verify their possession of the phone number they gave us. Here's what needs to get done to complete this story:
- Create a form to allow the user to enter the one-time password they were sent.
- Create routes and controllers to both display the form and handle the submission of the one-time password.
The route definition in config/routes.rb is pretty straight-forward, so we'll skip that bit here. Let's begin instead with the verification form, which is created with the Embedded Ruby Template code you see here.
This page actually has two forms, but we'll focus on the form for verifying a user's code first. It has only a single field for the verification code, which we'll submit to the server for validation.
Now let's take a look at the controller code handling this form.
This controller function handles the form submission. It needs to:
- Get the current user.
- Verify the code that was entered by the user.
- If the code entered was valid, flip a boolean flag on the user model to indicate the account was verified.
Authy provides us with a
verify method that allows us to pass a
user id, a
token and a
callback function if we'd like. In this case we just need to check that the API request was successful and, if so, set
user.verified to true.
That's all for this story! However, our verification form wouldn't be very usable if there wasn't a way to resend a verification code if the message didn't arrive at the end user's handset for whatever reason. Let's look at that next.
Since the form for re-sending the code is one line (see
show_verify.html.erb) we're going to skip that for this tutorial. Let's just look at the controller function.
This controller loads the
User model associated with the request and then uses the same Authy API method we used earlier to resend the code. Pretty straightforward!
To wrap things up, let's implement our last user story where we confirm the user's account creation and verification.
As a user, I want to view a success page and receive a text message indicating that my account has been created successfully.
This story completes the account verification use case by indicating to the user that their account has been created and verified successfully. To implement this story, we need to:
- Display a page that indicates that the user account has been created and verified successfully.
- Send a text message to the user's phone indicating their account has been verified.
This simple .erb template displays a user name and let's them know they've been verified.
Just a reminder that our router is automatically looking for a 'show.html.erb' template to render since we told it to use Resource Routing which automatically creates a
This should suffice for in-browser confirmation that the user has been verified. Let's see how we might send that text message next.
Authy is awesome for abstracting SMS and handling 2FA and account verification, but we can't use it to send arbitrary text messages. Let's use the Twilio API directly to do that!
In order to use the 'twilio-ruby' helper library we just need to include it in our Gemfile.
But first, we need to configure our Twilio account. We'll need three things, all of which can be found or set up through the Twilio console:
- Our Twilio account SID
- Our Twilio auth token
- A Twilio number in our account that can send text messages
Once we've hunted these config variables down we can create an instance function to send a message to the user's phone.
Much as we did for our Authy client, we create a single instance of the Twilio REST API helper, called
@client in this example.
Then all we need to do to send an sms is use the built in
messages.create() to send an SMS to the user's phone. Notice we are combing
phone_number to make sure we support international numbers.
In the controller, after a new user has been successfully verified, we use
send_message to deliver them the happy news!
Congratulations! You now have the power to register and verify users with Authy and Twilio SMS.
If you're a Ruby developer working with Twilio, you might want to check out these other tutorials:
Put a button on your web page that connects visitors to live support or sales people via telephone.
Instantly collect structured data from your users with a survey conducted over a voice call or SMS text messages.
Thanks for checking this tutorial out! If you have any feedback to share with us, we'd love to hear it. Reach out to us on Twitter and let us know what you build!