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TwiML™ Voice: <Gather>

You can use TwiML's <Gather> verb to collect digits or transcribe speech during a call.

The following example shows the most basic use of <Gather> TwiML:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

You can always send Twilio plain TwiML, or leverage the helper libraries to add TwiML to your web applications:

Loading Code Sample...
        Toggle to your preferred programming language, or view the raw TwiML to see how the libraries and TwiML syntax differ

        Simple <Gather>

        Toggle to your preferred programming language, or view the raw TwiML to see how the libraries and TwiML syntax differ

        When Twilio executes this TwiML, it will pause for up to five seconds to wait for the caller to enter digits on their keypad. A few things might happen next:

        • The caller enters digits followed by a # symbol or 5 seconds of silence. Twilio then sends the user's input as a parameter in a POST request to the URL hosting the <Gather> TwiML (if no action attribute is provided) or to the action URL.
        • The caller doesn't enter any digits and 5 seconds pass. Twilio will move on to the next TwiML verb in the document – since there are no more verbs here, Twilio will end the call.

        By nesting <Say> or <Play> in your <Gather>, you can read some text or play music for your caller while waiting for their input. See "Nest other verbs" below for examples and more information.

        <Gather> Attributes

        <Gather> supports the following attributes that change its behavior:

        Attribute name Allowed values Default value
        action URL (relative or absolute) current document URL
        finishOnKey 0-9, #, *, and '' (the empty string) #
        hints "words, phrases that have many words", class tokens none
        input dtmf, speech, dtmf speech dtmf
        language BCP-47 language tags en-US
        method GET, POST POST
        numDigits positive integer unlimited
        partialResultCallback URL (relative or absolute) none
        partialResultCallbackMethod GET, POST POST
        profanityFilter true, false true
        speechTimeout positive integer or auto timeout attribute value
        timeout positive integer 5
        speechModel default, numbers_and_commands, phone_call, experimental_conversations, experimental_utterances default
        enhanced true, false false
        actionOnEmptyResult true, false false

        Use one or more of these attributes in a <Gather> verb like so:

        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
            <Gather input="speech dtmf" timeout="3" numDigits="1">
                <Say>Please press 1 or say sales for sales.</Say>


        The action attribute takes an absolute or relative URL as a value. When the caller finishes entering digits (or the timeout is reached), Twilio will make an HTTP request to this URL. That request will include the user's data and Twilio's standard request parameters.

        If you do not provide an action parameter, Twilio will POST to the URL that houses the active TwiML document.

        Twilio may send some extra parameters with its request after the <Gather> ends:

        If you gather digits from the caller, Twilio will include the Digits parameter containing the numbers your caller entered.

        If you specify speech as an input with input="speech", Twilio will include SpeechResult and Confidence:

        • SpeechResult contains the transcribed result of your caller's speech.
        • Confidence contains a confidence score between 0.0 and 1.0. A higher confidence score means a better likelihood that the transcription is accurate.

        Note: Your code should not expect confidence as a required field as it is not guaranteed to be accurate, or even set, in any of the results.

        After <Gather> ends and Twilio sends its request to your action URL, the current call will continue using the TwiML you send back from that URL. Because of this, any TwiML verbs that occur after your <Gather> are unreachable.

        However, if the caller did not enter any digits or speech, call flow would continue in the original TwiML document.

        Without an action URL, Twilio will re-request the URL that hosts the TwiML you just executed. This can lead to unwanted looping behavior if you're not careful. See our example below for more information.

        If you started or updated a call with a twiml parameter, the action URLs for <Record>, <Gather>, and <Pay> must be absolute.

        The Call Resource API Docs have language-specific examples of creating and updating Calls with TwiML:

        • See "Create a Call resource with TwiML" under Create a Call Resource to see examples of creating a call with a twiml parameter.
        • See "Update a Call resource with TwiML" under Update a Call Resource to see examples of updating a call with a twiml parameter.

        Imagine you have the following TwiML hosted at

        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                    Please enter your account number,
                    followed by the pound sign
            <Say>We didn't receive any input. Goodbye!</Say>

        Scenario 1: If the caller:

        • does not press the keypad or say anything for five seconds, or
        • enters '#' (the default finishOnKey value) before entering any other digits

        then they will hear, "We didn't receive any input. Goodbye!"

        Scenario 2: If the caller:

        • enters a digit while the call is speaking "Please enter your account number..."

        then the <Say> verb will stop speaking and wait for the user's action.

        Scenario 3: If the caller:

        • enters 12345 and then presses #, or
        • allows 5 seconds to pass

        then Twilio will submit the digits and request parameters to the URL hosting this TwiML ( Twilio will fetch this same TwiML again and execute it, getting the caller stuck in this <Gather> loop.

        To avoid this behavior, it's best practice to point your action URL to a new URL that hosts some other TwiML for handling the duration of the call.

        The following code sample is almost identical to the TwiML above, but we've added the action and method attributes:

        Loading Code Sample...
              Specify an action URL to properly handle the rest of the call

              Complex <Gather> with action/method and nested <Say>

              Specify an action URL to properly handle the rest of the call

              Now when the caller enters their input, Twilio will submit the digits and request parameters to the process_gather.php URL.

              If we wanted to read back this input to the caller, our code hosted at /process_gather.php might look like:

              // page located at http://yourserver/process_gather.php
              echo "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\"?>\n";
              echo "<Response><Say>You entered " . $_REQUEST['Digits'] . "</Say></Response>";

              Back to attributes list


              finishOnKey lets you set a value that your caller can press to submit their digits.

              For example, if you set finishOnKey to # and your caller enters 1234#, Twilio will immediately stop waiting for more input after they press #.

              Twilio will then submit Digits=1234 to your action URL (note that the # is not included).

              Allowed values for this attribute are:

              • # (this is the default value)
              • *
              • Single digits 09
              • An empty string ('')

              If you use an empty string, <Gather> will capture all user input and no key will end the <Gather>. In this case, Twilio submits the user's digits to the action URL only after the timeout is reached.

              Back to attributes list

              If the following TwiML is used, finishOnKey has no impact once the caller starts speaking.

              <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                  <Gather input="speech dtmf" finishOnKey="#" timeout="5">
                          Please say something or press * to access the main menu
                  <Say>We didn't receive any input. Goodbye!</Say>


              You can improve Twilio's recognition of the words or phrases you expect from your callers by adding hints to your <Gather>.

              The hints attribute contains a list of words or phrases that Twilio should expect during recognition.

              You may provide up to 500 words or phrases in this list, separating each entry with a comma. Your hints may be up to 100 characters each, and you should separate each word in a phrase with a space, e.g.:

              hints="this is a phrase I expect to hear, keyword, product name, name"

              We have also implemented Google's class token list to improve recognition. You can pass a class token directly in the hints.


              Back to attributes list


              Specify which inputs (DTMF or speech) Twilio should accept with the input attribute.

              The default input for <Gather> is dtmf. You can set input to dtmf, speech, or dtmf speech.

              If you set input to speech, Twilio will gather speech from the caller for a maximum duration of 60 seconds.

              Please note that <Gather> speech recognition is not yet optimized for Alphanumeric inputs (e.g. ABC123), this could lead to inaccurate results and thus, we do not recommend it.

              If you set dtmf speech for your input, the first detected input (speech or dtmf) will take precedence. If speech is detected first, finishOnKey will be ignored.

              The following example shows a <Gather> that specifies speech input from the user. When this TwiML executes, the caller will hear the <Say> prompt. Twilio will then collect speech input for up to 60 seconds.

              Once the caller stops speaking for five seconds, Twilio posts their transcribed speech to your action URL.

              Loading Code Sample...

                    Gather speech

                    Back to attributes list


                    The language attribute specifies the language Twilio should recognize from your caller.

                    This value defaults to en-US, but you can set your language to any of our supported languages: see the full list.

                    Back to attributes list


                    The method you set on <Gather> tells Twilio whether to request your action URL via HTTP GET or POST.

                    POST is <Gather>'s default method.

                    Back to attributes list


                    You can set the number of digits you expect from your caller by including numDigits in <Gather>.

                    The numDigits attribute only applies to DTMF input.

                    For example, you might wish to set numDigits="5" when asking your caller to enter their 5-digit zip code. Once the caller enters the final digit of 94117, Twilio will immediately submit the data to your action URL.

                    Back to attributes list


                    If you provide a partialResultCallback URL, Twilio will make requests to this URL in real-time as it recognizes speech. These requests will contain a parameter labeled UnstableSpeechResult which contains partial transcriptions. These transcriptions may change as the speech recognition progresses.

                    The webhooks Twilio makes to your partialResultCallback are asynchronous. They do not accept any TwiML in response. If you want to take more actions based on this partial result, you need to use the REST API to modify the call.

                    Back to attributes list


                    The profanityFilter specifies if Twilio should filter profanities out of your speech transcription. This attribute defaults to true, which replaces all but the initial character in each filtered profane word with asterisks, e.g., 'f***.'

                    If you set this attribute to false, Twilio will no longer filter any profanities in your transcriptions.

                    Back to attributes list


                    When collecting speech from your caller, speechTimeout sets the limit (in seconds) that Twilio will wait after a pause in speech before it stops its recognition. After this timeout is reached, Twilio will post the speechResult to your action URL.

                    If you use both timeout and speechTimeout in your <Gather>, timeout will take precedence for DTMF input and speechTimeout will take precedence for speech.

                    If you set speechTimeout to auto, Twilio will stop speech recognition when there is a pause in speech and return the results immediately.

                    Back to attributes list


                    timeout allows you to set the limit (in seconds) that Twilio will wait for the caller to press another digit or say another word before it sends data to your action URL.

                    For example, if timeout is 3, Twilio wait three seconds for the caller to press another key or say another word before submitting their data.

                    Twilio will wait until all nested verbs execute before it begins the timeout period.

                    The default timeout value is 5.

                    Back to attributes list


                    speechModel allows you to select a specific model that is best suited for your use case to improve the accuracy of speech to text. The attribute currently supports default, numbers_and_commands, phone_call, experimental_conversations, and experimental_utterances.

                    numbers_and_commands and phone_call are best suited for the use cases where you'd expect to receive short queries such as voice commands or voice search. phone_call is best for audio that originated from a PSTN phone call (typically an 8khz sample rate).

                    <Gather input="speech" enhanced="true"speechModel="phone_call">
                        <Say>Please tell us why you're calling.</Say>

                    The phone_call value for speechModel currently only supports a set of languages, they are: en-US, en-GB, en-AU, fr-FR, fr-CA, ja-JP, ru-RU, es-US, es-ES, and pt-BR. You must also set the speechTimeout value to a positive integer, rather than using auto.

                    Experimental models are designed to give access to the latest speech technology and machine learning research, and can provide higher accuracy for speech recognition over other available models. However, some features that are supported by other available models are not yet supported by the experimental models such as confidence scores.

                    The experimental_utterances model is for short utterances that are a few seconds in length and is useful for trying to capture commands or other single shot directed speech use cases; think "press 0 or say 'support' to speak with an agent". The experimental_conversations model supports spontaneous speech and conversations; think "tell us why you're calling today".

                    Both experimental_conversations and experimental_utterances values for speechModel currently only supports a set of languages, they are listed here.

                    Please explore all options to see which works best for your use case.

                    Back to attributes list


                    The enhanced attribute instructs <Gather> to use a premium speech model that will improve the accuracy of transcription results. The premium speech model is only supported with phone_call speechModel. It costs 50% more at $0.03 per 15s of <Gather> than the standard phone_call model. The premium phone_call model was built using thousands of hours of training data. It ensures 54% fewer errors when transcribing phone conversations when compared to the basic phone_call model.

                    The following TwiML instructs <Gather> to use premium phone_call model:

                    <Gather input="speech" enhanced="true"speechModel="phone_call">
                        <Say>Please tell us why you're calling.</Say>

                    <Gather> will ignore the enhanced attribute if any other speechModel, other than phone_call is used.

                    For example, in the following TwiML, <Gather> ignores the enhanced attribute and applies standard numbers_and_commands speechModel.

                    <Gather input="speech" enhanced="true" speechModel="numbers_and_commands">
                        <Say>Please tell us why you're calling.</Say>

                    The premium enhanced phone_call model is priced at $0.03 per utterance while the standard phone_call model is priced at $0.02 per utterance.

                    Read the Language appendix to see if the enhanced model is available for your language.

                    Back to attributes list


                    actionOnEmptyResult allows you to force <Gather> to send a webhook to the action url even when there is no DTMF input. By default, if <Gather> times out while waiting for DTMF input, it will continue on to the next TwiML instruction.

                    For example, in the following TwiML when <Gather> times out, <Say> instruction is executed.

                    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                                Please enter your account number,
                                followed by the pound sign
                        <Say>We didn't receive any input. Goodbye!</Say>

                    To always force <Gather> to send a webhook to the action Url use the following TwiML,

                    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                        <Gather actionOnEmptyResult="true" action="/gather-action">
                                Please enter your account number,
                                followed by the pound sign

                    Nest other verbs

                    You can nest the following verbs within <Gather>:


                    The following example shows a <Gather> with a nested <Say>. This will read some text to the caller, and allows the caller to enter input at any time while that text is read to them:

                    Loading Code Sample...

                          Gather speech or DTMF with nested <Say>

                          When a <Gather> contains nested <Say> or <Play> verbs, the timeout begins either after the audio completes or when the caller presses their first key. If <Gather> contains multiple <Play> verbs, the contents of all files will be retrieved before the <Play> begins.

                          Cache static media for <Play> verbs

                          If you are using <Play> verbs, we recommend hosting your media in AWS S3 in us-east-1, eu-west-1, or ap-southeast-2 depending on which Twilio Region you are using. No matter where you host your media files, always ensure that you’re setting appropriate Cache Control headers. Twilio uses a caching proxy in its webhook pipeline and will cache media files that have cache headers. Serving media out of Twilio’s cache can take 10ms or less. Keep in mind that we run a fleet of caching proxies so it may take multiple requests before all of the proxies have a copy of your file in cache.

                          Manage timeouts

                          When a <Gather> reaches its timeout without any user input, call control will fall through to the next verb in your original TwiML document.

                          If you wish to have Twilio submit a request to your action URL even if <Gather> times out, include a <Redirect> after the <Gather> like this:

                          Loading Code Sample...
                                Send information to your action URL even if <Gather> times out

                                <Redirect> after <Gather>

                                Send information to your action URL even if <Gather> times out

                                With this code, Twilio will move to the next verb in the document (<Redirect>) when <Gather> times out. In our example, we instruct Twilio to make a new GET request to /process_gather.php?Digits=TIMEOUT


                                A few common problems users face when working with <Gather>:

                                Problem: <Gather> doesn't receive caller input when the caller is using a VoIP phone.

                                Solution: Some VoIP phones have trouble sending DTMF digits. This is usually because these phones use compressed bandwidth-conserving audio protocols that interfere with the transmission of the digit's signal. Consult your phone's documentation on DTMF problems.

                                Problem: Twilio does not send the Digits parameter to your <Gather> URL.

                                Solution: Check to ensure your application is not responding to the action URL with an HTTP 3xx redirect. Twilio will follow this redirect, but won't resend the Digits parameter.

                                If you encounter other issues with <Gather>, please reach out to our support team for assistance.

                                Language appendix

                                Click here to download a .csv file of all available languages.

                                Language Language Tag Supports enhanced model Supports experimental models
                                Afrikaans (South Africa) af-ZA No No
                                Albanian (Albania) sq-AL No No
                                Amharic (Ethiopia) am-ET No No
                                Arabic (Algeria) ar-DZ No Yes
                                Arabic (Bahrain) ar-BH No Yes
                                Arabic (Egypt) ar-EG No Yes
                                Arabic (Iraq) ar-IQ No Yes
                                Arabic (Israel) ar-IL No Yes
                                Arabic (Jordan) ar-JO No Yes
                                Arabic (Kuwait) ar-KW No Yes
                                Arabic (Lebanon) ar-LB No Yes
                                Arabic (Mauritania) ar-MR No Yes
                                Arabic (Morocco) ar-MA No Yes
                                Arabic (Oman) ar-OM No Yes
                                Arabic (Qatar) ar-QA No Yes
                                Arabic (Saudi Arabia) ar-SA No Yes
                                Arabic (State of Palestine) ar-PS No Yes
                                Arabic (Tunisia) ar-TN No Yes
                                Arabic (United Arab Emirates) ar-AE No Yes
                                Arabic (Yemen) ar-YE No Yes
                                Armenian (Armenia) hy-AM No No
                                Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani) az-AZ No No
                                Basque (Spain) eu-ES No No
                                Bengali (Bangladesh) bn-BD No No
                                Bengali (India) bn-IN No No
                                Bosnian (Bosnia and Herzgovina) bs-BA No No
                                Bulgarian (Bulgaria) bg-BG No No
                                Burmese (Myanmar) my-MM No No
                                Catalan (Spain) ca-ES No No
                                Chinese, Cantonese (Traditional, Hong Kong) yue-Hant-HK No No
                                Chinese, Mandarin (Simplified, China) cmn-Hans-CN No No
                                Chinese, Mandarin (Simplified, Hong Kong) cmn-Hans-HK No No
                                Chinese, Mandarin (Traditional, Taiwan) cmn-Hant-TW No No
                                Croatian (Croatia) hr-HR No No
                                Czech (Czech Republic) cs-CZ No No
                                Danish (Denmark) da-DK No Yes
                                Dutch (Netherlands) nl-NL No Yes
                                Dutch (Belgium) nl-BE No No
                                English (Australia) en-AU No Yes
                                English (Canada) en-CA No No
                                English (Ghana) en-GH No No
                                English (Hong Kong) en-HK No No
                                English (India) en-IN No Yes
                                English (Ireland) en-IE No No
                                English (Kenya) en-KE No No
                                English (New Zealand) en-NZ No No
                                English (Nigeria) en-NG No No
                                English (Pakistan) en-PK No No
                                English (Philippines) en-PH No No
                                English (Singapore) en-SG No No
                                English (South Africa) en-ZA No No
                                English (Tanzania) en-TZ No No
                                English (United Kingdom) en-GB Yes Yes
                                English (United States) en-US Yes Yes
                                Estonian (Estonia) et-EE No No
                                Filipino (Philippines) fil-PH No No
                                Finnish (Finland) fi-FI No Yes
                                French (Belgium) fr-BE No No
                                French (Canada) fr-CA No Yes
                                French (France) fr-FR Yes Yes
                                French (Switzerland) fr-CH Yes No
                                Galician (Spain) gl-ES No No
                                Georgian (Georgia) ka-GE No No
                                German (Austria) de-AT No No
                                German (Germany) de-DE No Yes
                                German (Switzerland) de-CH No No
                                Greek (Greece) el-GR No No
                                Gujarati (India) gu-IN No No
                                Hebrew (Israel) he-IL No No
                                Hindi (India) hi-IN No Yes
                                Hungarian (Hungary) hu-HU No No
                                Icelandic (Iceland) is-IS No No
                                Indonesian (Indonesia) id-ID No No
                                Italian (Italy) it-IT No No
                                Italian (Switzerland) it-CH No No
                                Japanese (Japan) ja-JP Yes Yes
                                Javanese (Indonesia) jv-ID No No
                                Kannada (India) kn-IN No No
                                Kazakh (Kazakhistan) kk-KZ No No
                                Khmer (Cambodian) km-KH No No
                                Korean (South Korea) ko-KR No Yes
                                Lao (Laos) lo-LA No No
                                Latvian (Latvia) lv-LV No No
                                Lithuanian (Lithuania) lt-LT No No
                                Macedonian (North Macedonia) mk-MK No Yes
                                Malay (Malaysia) ms-MY No No
                                Malayalam (India) ml-IN No No
                                Marathi (India) mr-IN No No
                                Mongolian (Mongolia) mn-MN No No
                                Nepali (Nepal) ne-NP No No
                                Norwegian Bokmål (Norway) nb-NO No Yes
                                Persian (Iran) fa-IR No No
                                Polish (Poland) pl-PL No Yes
                                Portuguese (Brazil) pt-BR No Yes
                                Portuguese (Portugal) pt-PT No Yes
                                Punjabi (Gurmukhi India) pa-guru-IN No No
                                Romanian (Romania) ro-RO No Yes
                                Russian (Russia) ru-RU Yes Yes
                                Serbian (Serbia) sr-RS No No
                                Sinhala (Sri Lanka) si-LK No No
                                Slovak (Slovakia) sk-SK No No
                                Slovenian (Slovenia) sl-SI No No
                                Spanish (Argentina) es-AR No No
                                Spanish (Bolivia) es-BO No No
                                Spanish (Chile) es-CL No No
                                Spanish (Colombia) es-CO No No
                                Spanish (Costa Rica) es-CR No No
                                Spanish (Dominican Republic) es-DO No No
                                Spanish (Ecuador) es-EC No No
                                Spanish (El Salvador) es-SV No No
                                Spanish (Guatemala) es-GT No No
                                Spanish (Honduras) es-HN No No
                                Spanish (Mexico) es-MX No No
                                Spanish (Nicaragua) es-NI No No
                                Spanish (Panama) es-PA No No
                                Spanish (Paraguay) es-PY No No
                                Spanish (Peru) es-PE No No
                                Spanish (Puerto Rico) es-PR No No
                                Spanish (Spain) es-ES Yes Yes
                                Spanish (United States) es-US Yes Yes
                                Spanish (Uruguay) es-UY No No
                                Spanish (Venezuela) es-VE No No
                                Sundanese (Indonesia) su-ID No No
                                Swahili (Kenya) sw-KE No No
                                Swahili (Tanzania) sw-TZ No No
                                Swedish (Sweden) sv-SE No No
                                Tamil (India) ta-IN No No
                                Tamil (Malaysia) ta-MY No No
                                Tamil (Singapore) ta-SG No No
                                Tamil (Sri Lanka) ta-LK No No
                                Telugu (India) te-IN No No
                                Thai (Thailand) th-TH No Yes
                                Turkish (Turkey) tr-TR No Yes
                                Ukrainian (Ukraine) uk-UA No Yes
                                Urdu (India) ur-IN No No
                                Urdu (Pakistan) ur-PK No No
                                Uzbek (Uzbekistan) uz-UZ No No
                                Vietnamese (Vietnam) vi-VN No Yes
                                Zulu (South Africa) zu-ZA No No
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