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  • By Miguel Grinberg
    Add Two-Factor Authentication to a Python Flask Application with Twilio Verify Add Two-Factor Authentication to a Python Flask application with Twilio Verify

    Twilio Verify is an easy-to-use service that allows your application to send verification codes to your users via SMS or phone call. While the main purpose of this API is to verify users when they sign up for a new account, I want to show you how the same functionality can be used to quickly implement two-factor authentication support.

    In this article I’m going to take a complete, non-trivial Python application that uses the Flask framework and modify it to allow users to optionally enable two-factor authentication on their accounts. The application that I’m going to use for this exercise is the one featured in my Flask Mega-Tutorial, a microblogging web application very appropriately, though unoriginally called Microblog.

    To give you a taste of what this looks like once implemented, below you can see how a user enables two-factor authentication on this application:

    Two-factor authentication demo

    Once two-factor is enabled, the …

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  • By Miguel Grinberg
    Build a SMS Chatbot With Python, Flask and Twilio Build an SMS Chatbot with Python, Flask and Twilio

    In a previous article I showed you how to build a WhatsApp chatbot with Python, Flask and Twilio. Today I’m going to use similar techniques to build a chatbot that communicates with users through text messages using Twilio’s Programmable SMS.

    The chatbot that I’m going to build performs a simple analysis of what the user writes to find keywords of interest, which trigger the response of the chatbot. The two keywords in my implementation are “quote” and “cat”, which trigger responses of famous quotes and cat pictures respectively.

    Below you can see the chatbot in action:

    Chatbot demonstration

    Tutorial Requirements

    To follow this tutorial you need the following components:

    • Python 3.6 or newer. If your operating system does not provide a Python interpreter, you can go to python.org to download an installer.
    • Flask. We will create a web application that responds to incoming SMS messages with it.
    • ngrok. We …
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  • By Miguel Grinberg
    Securing Your Twilio Webhooks in Python Securing your Twilio Webhooks in Python

    Last month a Twitter user described in detail how he almost fell victim to a very credible phishing attempt against his bank account. One of the key aspects of this attempted scam was that the attacker, posing as a bank representative, was able to make the bank send a legitimate verification code to the user’s phone.

    While this was just a very clever abuse of the bank’s lax user verification protocols and not a result of a hack, it helps reinforce the idea that you cannot stop thinking about security, and this obviously also applies to the webhooks that support applications that are based on Twilio APIs.

    In this article I’m going to discuss the risks that are specific to webhooks and the techniques that you have at your disposal to make them secure.

    Understanding the Risks

    Before I go into the available solutions, I want to help you understand …

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  • By Miguel Grinberg
    Build a WhatsApp Chatbot With Python, Flask and Twilio Build a WhatsApp Chatbot with Python, Flask and Twilio

    A chatbot is a software application that is able to conduct a conversation with a human user through written or spoken language. The level of “intelligence” among chatbots varies greatly. While some chatbots have a fairly basic understanding of language, others employ sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) algorithms to achieve an almost human conversational level.

    In this tutorial I’m going to show you how easy it is to build a chatbot for WhatsApp using the Twilio API for WhatsApp and the Flask framework for Python. Below you can see an example interaction I had with this chatbot:

    WhatsApp chatbot demo session

    Tutorial Requirements

    To follow this tutorial you need the following components:

    • Python 3.6 or newer. If your operating system does not provide a Python interpreter, you can go to python.org to download an installer.
    • Flask. We will create a web application that responds to incoming WhatsApp messages with it. …
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  • By Miguel Grinberg
    Introducing Python Developer Miguel Grinberg Miguel Grinberg

    Hello everyone, my name is Miguel Grinberg, and I am super excited to join the Developer Voices team at Twilio.

    I have a Masters degree in Computer Science, and for the last few years I’ve been active in open source, mostly within the Python community. I live in a small rural village in Ireland. This is the peaceful and relaxing view that I have from my home office window:

    The view from my home office window

    I Love Code

    The main thing you need to know about me is that since my teenage years I have been a coder, and the more I code the more I like it.

    I learned to code writing video games in the BASIC programming language, on Texas Instruments and Commodore home computers. In those pre-Internet days there wasn’t much of a choice in computer languages, so after being unhappy with the lag in some of my BASIC games I taught myself …

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